Saturday, September 20, 2008

Anthony C. Yu

Anthony C. Yu is a literature and religion scholar. He is currently the Carl Darling Buck Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus at the University of Chicago.

Best known for his four-volume translation of The Journey to the West, he coedited Morphologies of Faith: Essays in Religion and Culture in Honor of Nathan A. Scott, Jr. He has also published Rereading the Stone: Desire and the Making of Fiction in “Dream of the Red Chamber.” His latest book is State and Religion in China: Historical and Textual Perspectives.

He has studied at Fuller Theological Seminary and the University of Chicago .

Zhu Bajie

Zhu Bajie , also named ''Zhu Wuneng'' , is one of the three helpers of in the classic Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''. He is called "Pigsy" or "Pig" in many versions of the story.

Zhu Bajie is a complex and developed character in the novel. He looks like a terrible monster, part human and part pig, who often gets himself and his companions into trouble by his laziness, his gluttony, and his propensity for lusting after pretty women. He is jealous of Wukong and always tries to bring him down. His Buddhist name "Zhu Wuneng", given by bodhisattva , means "pig who is ability, or pig who rises to power", a reference to the fact that he values himself so much as to forget his own grisly appearance. Xuanzang gave him the nickname ''Bājiè'' which means "eight " to remind him of his Buddhist diet. He is often seen as the most outgoing of the group. In the original Chinese novel, he is often called ''dāizi'' , meaning "idiot". Sun Wukong, Xuanzang and even the author refer to him as "idiot" over the course of the story. Bodhisattvas and other heavenly beings usually refer to him as "Heavenly Tumbleweed."


Zhu Bajie's name is composed of three characters: ''Zhū'' which means "pig", and ''Bājiè'', which means "Eight Prohibitions". His name was formerly Zhū ''Liùjiè'' , ''liù'' meaning "six". When he committed two more sins, however, his name was changed to ''Bājiè''.


Zhu Bajie originally held the title of ''Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi'' , commander-in-chief of 80,000 Heavenly Navy Soldiers. When Sun Wu Kong was born, he was a giant demon. Tiānpéng Yuánshuǎi defeated him and he was granted his present title. He was later banished, however, for misbehaviour. At a party organized for all the significant figures in Heaven, Bajie saw the for the first time and was captivated by her beauty. Following a drunken attempt to get close to her, she reported this to the Jade Emperor and thus he was banished to Earth. In some retellings of the story, his banishment is linked to Sun Wukong's downfall. In any case, he was exiled from Heaven and sent to be reincarnated on Earth, where by mishap he fell into a pig farm and was reborn as a man-eating pig-monster known as ''Zhū Gāngliè'' .

In the earlier portions of ''Journey to the West'', Wukong and Xuanzang come to Gao village and find that a daughter of the village elder had been kidnapped and the abductor left a note demanding marriage. After some investigations, Wukong found out that Bajie was the "villain" behind this. He fought with Wukong, but ended the fight when he learned that Wukong is a servant of Xuanzang, revealing that he had been recruited by Guanyin to join their pilgrimage and make atonements for his sins .

Like his fellow disciples, Bajie has supernatural powers. He knows 36 transformations. Like his fellow disciple, Sha Wujing, his combat skills underwater are superior to that of Wukong. The novel makes use of constant imagery and Bajie is most closely linked to the Wood element, as seen by another one of his nicknames, ''Mùmǔ'' .

At the end of the novel, most of Bajie's fellow pilgrims achieve enlightenment and become or arhats, but he does not; although much improved, he is still too much a creature of his base desires. He is instead rewarded for his part in the pilgrimage's success with a job as "Cleanser of the Altars" and all the leftovers he can eat.

As a weapon, he wields a , a nine-tooth iron muck- from Heaven that weighs roughly 5,048 kilos .

Popular culture

In the manga '''' and the anime '''', ''Dragon Ball Z'' and Dragon Ball GT, there is a pig named which is loosely based on Zhu Bajie; he is greedy, ugly, stupid and has the shape-changing ability.

'''', an anime and manga loosely based on ''Journey to the West'', features a major character named is loosely based on Zhu Bajie; indeed, ''Cho Hakkai'' is Japanese for ''Zhu Bajie'', as is his previous name ''Cho Gonou'' . Hakkai, being gentle and polite, and hardly resembling anything but a human, is nothing like Bajie. However, in a team of impostors who take the party's place in a few episodes, Hakkai's counterpart is in fact a slobbish glutton.

In the anime ''InuYasha'', Zhu Bajie's descendant is a demon named Chokyukai that abducts young unmarried women and takes them to his palace.

The Capcom arcade game '''', also loosely based on ''Journey to the West'', features a character drawn from Zhu Bajie in the form of the second-player character Tonton.

Xuanzang (fictional character)

The fictional character Xuanzang is a central character of the classic novel ''Journey to the West''.
For most of the novel he is known as ''-sānzàng'', the title Sānzàng referring to his mission to seek the ''Sānzàngjīng'', the "Three Collections of Scriptures". In some translations, the title is rendered as Tripitaka . He is also commonly referred to as Táng-sēng , which is a courtesy name that, like the former name, reflects his status as the adopted "brother" of the emperor, Taizong. As "Tripitaka" he is a leading character in the cult Japanese Television series .


In the story, he is constantly terrorized by monsters and demons because of a legend that they would obtain immortality by eating the flesh of a holy man. While he is a pacifist who has no fighting ability of his own, he is flanked by his three powerful disciples - Sun Wukong, Zhu Bajie, and Sha Wujing - themselves "monsters" who have vowed to protect him on his journey in order to atone for their sins in Heaven; while the heavenly origins of Wukong are up for debate, both Bajie and Wujing were once minor deities in Heaven who were cast to Earth for their wrongdoings.

Historical background

Xuanzang is partly modelled after the historical Tang Dynasty Buddhist monk , whose life was the book's inspiration; the real Xuanzang made a perilous journey on foot from China to to obtain Buddhist sutras.

In recent years, a mural on the wall of a mountain pass on the way to the China/India border was discovered that is purported to show the real Xuanzang flanked by a small hairy man that some scholars have theorized might have been the inspiration for the character of the Monkey King.

Wu Cheng'en

Wu Cheng'en , courtesy name Ruzhong , was a Chinese novelist and poet of the Ming Dynasty. He was born in . He studied in ancient Nanjing University for more than 10 years.

His most famous novel is ''Journey to the West'', in which, among other fantastic adventures the monk encounters the Flaming Mountains. The novel has been enjoyed by many generations of Chinese and is the most popular Chinese classic folk novel. A popular translation of the novel is by Arthur Waley and entitled . However, it has been condensed from the original three volume text to a single volume and is not suitable for study. It is, nonetheless. an excellent introduction to this monumental work and makes the uncondensed version easier to follow.

Wu's poetry focused on the expression of emotions, and for this reason his work has been compared to that of Li Bai.

White Soft-shelled Turtle

White Soft-shelled Turtle a character featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. This ancient white turtle is an entity from Heaven that had performed ill deeds on accident and is now forced to roam around the eastern River of Heaven. After Sun Wukong and the others retrieve two children from the hands of a sinister demon, they are thanked greatly by the Chen family and continue on their way through the River of Heaven. This is at the point in which the ancient white turtle is seen for the first time. After the large turtle leads Sanzang and his disciples across the river, he pleads for Sanzang to ask the lord Tathagata when he is to be converted and how long he is to live. Unfortunately however after meeting with the Tathagata, Sanzang never remembered to ask about the turtle. After Sanzang and the others were returning to China atop this white turtle once again – at the point in which they were dropped half way to China to complete their 81st ordeal – the large white turtle asks Sanzang as like many years before about his future. The ashamed Sanzang does not say anything, leading for the white turtle to submerge himself in rage which would have normally drowned the Tang priest. After Sanzang and the others reached shore and dried off their ancient scriptures, this ancient white turtle would never truly be shown again in its dismay.

Tawny Lion

* ''see also: Journey to the West main article

Tawny Lion a character featured within the famous ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. Tawny Lion is first featured around Chapter 89, in which he stole all three of Sanzang’s disciples weapons by absorbing them and running back off to his family. Pig and Friar Sand, along with Sun Wukong later end up sneaking into Tawny Lion’s palace-forest area disguised as two of Tawny Lion’s demon underlings. After they retrieve their weapons, they fight against Tawny Lion. As revealed during the fight, Tawny Lion wields a long golden halberd-like weapon that he uses with superb skill. Tawny Lion is defeated after a short amount of time. He then flees to his grandfather’s for support. After he, along with his grandfather head back to the main direction to attack the city in which Sun Wukong had been, Tawny Lion comes across his original forest-palace, only in great ruins. Tawny Lion sees his fellow family members lying slaughtered. This leads to him even attempting suicide – smashing head against a large rock – but he is quickly stopped by his demon allies. Tawny Lion vows ultimate revenge against Sun Wukong during this point with tears flowing from his eyes. During the mist of the night, in which Greenface designs their plan, Tawny Lion sets out in attempt to capture Wukong, Pig, and Friar Sand, which is part of the plan. After Tawny Lion’s hatred explodes against Wukong, a fine duel ensues. Wukong manages however to seize a moment of distraction in Tawny Lion to deliver a fatal blow upon his body. Thus, this golden haired lion spirit died while never being able to have revenge.

Square Gao

Square Gao a minor character featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. Square Gao is the head of Gao Village, in which he is always complaining about his son-in-law. This son-in-law of his happens to be Zhu Bajie, a sex crazed pig. Zhu Bajie had forced Square Gao his son-in-law so that he could attain his daughter as his own wife. As later seen, Bajie eats up all the food that Square Gao has as his daughter's "husband". After Sanzang and Wukong arrive to this village, Square Gao immediately appears before them and pleads for a request to rescue his daughter. After Wukong is in the process of rescueing his daughter, Square Gao effectively calls out his daughter's name and she is effectively saved. After the whole issue is resolved, Square Gao awards Wukong and Sanzang greatly with a banquet and expresses his utmost thanks. After this arc, Square Gao is never shown again at any point.

Shuilian Cave

Shuilian Cave , literally meaning Water Curtain Cave, is an area featured within the famed Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''. Shuilian Cave had been featured since the first chapter of this novel. Very early on, Sun Wukong would become the king of this cave and it would generally be used for all the monkeys to train within and generally rest. Before such an event, Wukong, with his bravery, nominated himself to be the monkey that would rush through the Mount Huaguo's great waterfall in order to see what was behind it. This is what Wukong saw behind the waterfall:

*''Emerald moss piled up in heaps of blue,
White clouds like drifting jade,''
*While the light flickered among wisps of coloured mist.
A quiet house with peaceful windows,''
*Flowers growing on the smooth bench;
Dragon pearls hanging in niches,''
*Exotic blooms all around.
Traces of fire beside the stove,''
*Scraps of food in the vessels by the table.
Adorable stone chairs and beds,''
*Even better stone plates and bowls.
One or two tall bamboos,''
*Three or four sprigs of plum blossom,
A few pines that always attract rain,''
*''All just like a real home.''

- following this, Wukong - -

''took a good, long look and then scampered to the middle of the bridge, from where he noticed a stone tablet. On the tablet had been carved in big square letters: HAPPY LAND OF THE MOUNTAIN OF FLOWERS AND FRUIT, CAVE HEAVEN OF THE WATER CURTAIN . The stone monkey was beside himself with glee. ''He rushed away, shut his eyes, crouched, and leapt back through the waterfall.''

After many points following this, Sun Wukong would return to the Water Curtain Cave for miscellaneous reasons either while returning from his celestial master, or from an issue with his enlightened master, Sanzang.

Sha Wujing

Shā Wùjìng is one of the three helpers of in the classic Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''. In the novels, his background is the least developed of the pilgrims and he contributes the least to their efforts. He is called Sandy in many versions of the story. His name is translated into as ''Sa Gojō'' , into as ''Sa Ng? T?nh'' and into as ''Sua Jeng''.


Like Zhu Bajie, Wujing was originally a general in Heaven - - more specifically as a Curtain-Lifting General. Once, he became very furious and destroyed a valuable vase. Other sources mention that he did this unintentionally. Nevertheless, he was punished by the Jade Emperor, who had him struck 800 times with a rod and exiled to earth, where he was to be as a terrible man-eating Sand Demon. There, he lived in the ''Liúshā-hé'' . Every seven days a sword would be sent from heaven to stab him 100 times in the chest before flying off.

Wujing's appearance was rather grisly; he had a red beard and his was partially bald; a necklace consisting of skulls made him even more terrible. He still carried the weapon he had in Heaven, a '''', a double-headed staff with a crescent-moon blade at one end and a spade at the other, with six '''' rings in the shovel part to denote its religious association. There is an interesting story about the necklace of skulls. An earlier group of nine monks on a pilgrimage West to fetch the scriptures met their end at the hands of Wujing. Despite their pleas for mercy, he devoured them, sucked the marrow from their bones, and threw their skulls into the river. However, unlike his other victims whose bone sank to the river bottom, the skulls of the monks floated. This fascinated and delighted Wujing, who strung them on a rope and played with them whenever he was bored.

Later, Guanyin, the bodhisattva of compassion, and her disciple Prince Moksa came searching for powerful bodyguards in preparation of Xuanzang's journey west. She recruited Wujing in exchange for some relief from his suffering. She then converted him and gave him his current name, ''Shā Wùjìng''. His surname ''Shā'' was taken from his river-home, while his name ''Wùjìng'' means " purity" or "aware of purity". Finally, he was instructed to wait for a monk who would call for him. When Wujing does meet Xuanzang, he was mistaken for an enemy and attacked by Sun Wukong and Zhu Bajie. Guanyin was forced to intervene for the sake of the journey.

After everything was cleared up, Wujing became the third of Xuanzang, who called him ''Shā-héshàng'' . Now, he was clad in a robe and his skull-necklace was turned into a one. His appearance also changed; from now on he looked more like a human, yet still ugly. During the Journey to the West, his swimming ability was quite useful. He always carried a small gourd which he could turn into a huge one to cross rivers. Wujing was actually a kind-hearted and obedient person and was very loyal to his master, among the three he was likely the most polite and the most logical. At the journey's end, Buddha transformed him into an arhat or luohan.

As the third disciple, even though his fighting skills are not as great as that of Wukong or Bajie, he is still a great warrior protecting Xuanzang and can use his intellect as well as his strength to beat the enemy. He does not know any transformations; he admits this during the middle of the book.

Characters similar to Sha Wujing

In Japan he was seen as a , another fearsome kind of water demon.

In the manga/anime '''', is loosely based on Sha Wujing, with a modified version of the same weapon . However, Gojyō is described as being half human, half ''yōkai'', instead of a man-eating river monster.

''Mega Man: The Wily Wars'' had a character based on Sha Wujing named Mega Water.S in the unlockable "Wily Tower" game. Mega Water.S later made an appearance in the CD Database for ''Mega Man & Bass''.

In the manga/anime '''', the character Yamcha, the Desert Bandit, was originally based upon Sha Wujing.

In Digimon, Shaujinmon is based on Sha Wujing.

In the movie The Forbidden Kingdom Jackie Chan's character Lu Yan is based on Sha Wujing.

Sa Gojo

Sa Gojō is the Japanese name of the Journey to the West character Sha Wujing.

In Japanese popular culture, it can refer to various characters based on Sha Wujing, such as:
* The character "Sandy" in the '''' TV series
* Sha Gojyo , in the manga ''Saiyuki''

Ruyi Jingu Bang

Ruyi Jingu Bang , or simply as Jingu Bang, is the poetic name of a magical weapon wielded by the in the classic Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''.

General Description

It is an iron rod whose size changes ''ruyi'' 如意 "as-one-wishes", once used by Da Yu to measure the depth of the flood waters destroying ancient China, which Wukong obtains from the undersea palace of Ao Guang, the Dragon King of the East Sea. It is immensely heavy; in modern measurements, it is slightly weightier than 7.5 metric tons. When it is not in use, Wukong shrinks it to the size of a sewing needle and keeps it behind his ear. It is often depicted as red and having gold bands near the ends. In other depictions, it is shown as a silver staff with golden ends, or as a solid gold or copper staff.

In popular culture

* Various characters in other manga and anime often wield an indestructible ''nyoi-bō'' staff based and modeled after the character Sun Wukong of ''Journey to the West''. Of the most popular of these depictions include of the '''' metaseries, the title character in the '''' television series, the Monkey King which can transform into a giant ''nyoi-bō'' in ''Naruto'', as well as . It is also one of the Precious of the ''Super Sentai'' series '''', although it is featured only briefly at the end of the final episode.
* In the video game Phantasy Star Online, one of the weapons is the Monkey King Bar that changes its size when used.
* In the , the character Kilik can wield the Jingu staff. In particular, Soul Calibur 3 has custom moveset called the "Soul of the Staff" which uses attacks where the titular staff changes length and width, with its standard size being estimated at a foot in length.
* In Defense of the Ancients, the Monkey King Bar is a powerful damage item that temporarily stuns opponents.
* In the movie , the quest of Jason Tripitakas is to return Ruyi Jingu Bang to the Monkey King and thereby free him.

Red Boy

Red Boy was a character featured in the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West. Red Boy was also known as the Boy Sage King , and had been the son of Princess Iron Fan and the Bull Demon King, a former sworn brother of the Monkey King Sun Wukong. Through the orders of his father, Red Boy was told to be the protector of the Fiery Mountains due to his supreme abilities when it had came to fire after cultivating his powers for over 300 years.

Through this, Red Boy had developed ''True Samādhi Fire'' , which enables him to shoot fire inexstinguishable by water and smoke from his eyes, nostrils and mouth.

Red Boy is described thus:

"A face as pale as if powdered,

Lips as red as from lipstick.

Hair in two tufts looking darker than indigo,

A clear?cut brow like a crescent moon.

His kilt was embroidered with phoenix and dragon,

He looked like Nezha, but a little plumper.

In his hands he wielded an awe?inspiring spear,

As he came out through the gates, protected by his aura.

When he roared it echoed like thunder,

And the glare of his eyes flashed like lightning.

If you would know this demon's true name,

He was the Red Boy of undying renown."

Sun Wukong had battled against Red Boy in hopes of returning his master, the Tang Priest. Red Boy did not believe Wukong's statement that Red Boy's father is his sworn brother, which makes Wukong a relation of his.

Red Boy then tried to kill Sun Wukong by controlling five carts that emitted an absurd amount of fire that had the power to blotch out the heavens, but Wukong casts a fire resistance spell and chases after Red Boy, who came back into his cave, thinking he had defeated Wukong.

Sun Wukong at first asks some rain from the Eastern Dragon King to counter Red Boy's Samadhi Fire, to no avail . He then later asks for the help of the Bodhisattva Guanyin .

As Red Boy is fighting Wukong in a forest, he found Guanyin's Lotus Seat, and then sat in it imitating Guanyin's posture. Suddenly the Lotus Seat transformed into swords which pierced and wounded Red Boy; as he attempted to take them out, the swords then transformed into halberds, which trapped him. In pain, Red Boy then vowed to become a . He was then given the name 'Sudhana' by Guanyin.

She then withdrew the blades and healed Red Boy's wounds but Red Boy then attempted to attack the Bodhisattva once more. She then threw a golden band which multiplied into five and fixed it around his head, wrists and legs , thereby subduing him.

Red Boy then found out that he could not remove these bands, and after being jibed by Wukong, took his spear and attempted to attack him, only to have Guanyin recite another spell, which made Red Boy put his hands together in front of his chest, unable to pull them apart; Red Boy, now with his arms immobilized, could do nothing than lower his head in a kowtow.


Ratnadhvaja a minor character featured within the famed ancient Journey to the West. Ratnadhvaja is regularly known as the Royal of Brightness or the Welcoming Buddha. Ratnadhvaja is a neutrally ranked Buddha that serves under the Lord of Buddhas. Ratnadhvaja is first shown within chapter 98 when he had appeared before and his disciples as to ferry them across a large elevated river near the Vulture Peak. Ratnadhvaja lacked a bottom to his boat, but through surviving centuries of chaos, this celestial boat allowed for Sanzang to cross the river with relative ease. After this renowned Buddha leads Sanzang and the others across the river, he is never truly seen again at any point within the novel. Forever following this point Ratnadhvaja would guide those across this large river in order to meet the supreme Buddha atop Vulture Peak - the Tathagata.

Protector of the Horses

* ''see also: Sun Wukong
* ''see also: Journey to the West main article

Protector of the Horses a title given to Sun Wukong within the famed ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. After the Great White Planet saw the evil deeds of Sun Wukong over a large period of time, he personally escorted Wukong to Heaven in order to be appointed a position as to satisfy his lust for fame. After Wukong appears before the Jade Emperor, Wukong is granted the title of "Protector of the Horses". Wukong chants a na-a-aw, and leaves. Little did Wukong know however that this position was very low ranked in the standpoint of heaven's society. Here is a message to explain Wukong's situation:

*''The Monkey King looked through the register and counted the horses. In the stables the book?keeper was responsible for ordering the fodder, the head groom was in charge of currying the horses, chopping up and cooking the fodder, and giving them water; the deputy superintendent and his assistant helped ''
*''to oversee the work. The Protector of the Horses looked after his charges, sleeping neither by day nor by night.''
*''It is true that he fooled around by day, but at night he looked after the animals with great diligence, waking them up and making them eat whenever they fell asleep, and leading those still on their feet to the trough. At the sight of him the heavenly horses would prick up their ears and paw the ground, and they became fat and plump. Thus more than half a month slipped by.''

After Wukong discussed his position with various other horse protectors within the stable, this is what they told him:

*''"It is a very low and unimportant office, and all you can do in it is look after the horses. Even someone who works as conscientiously as Your Honour and gets the horses so fat will get no more reward than someone saying 'good'; and if anything goes at all wrong you will
be held responsible, and if the losses are serious you will be fined and punished."

This is the last point in which the Protector of the Horses position is truly mentioned, since Wukong leaves his stable in absolute rage over the Jade Emperor's trickery.

Nine-toothed Rake

The nine-toothed rake is a major weapon featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. The Nine-toothed rake is the primary weapon of Zhu Bajie - one of three disciples under Sanzang. This phrase depicts the first point in which Bajie's legendary nine-toothed rake had been used:

The fierce and murderous ogre;

Huian, imposing and able.

The iron staff could pulverize the heart;

The rake struck at the face.

The dust thrown up darkened Heaven and Earth;

The flying sand and stones startled gods and ghouls.

The nine?toothed rake

Gleamed and flashed

As its pair of rings resounded;

The lone staff

Was ominously black

As it whirled in its owner's hands.

One was the heir of a Heavenly King,

One defended the Law on Potaraka Island.

The other was an evil fiend in a mountain cave.

In their battle for mastery,

None knew who the winner would be.

Here is another phrase in which Pig tells of his legendary rake while battling it out against Sun Wukong:

This was refined from divine ice?iron,

Polished till it gleamed dazzling white,

Hammered by Lord Lao Zi himself,

While Ying Huo fed the fire with coal?dust.

The Five Emperors of the Five Regions applied their minds to it,

The Six Dings and Six jias went to great efforts.

They made nine teeth of jade,

Cast a pair of golden rings to hang beneath them,

Decorated the body with the Six Bright Shiners and the Five planets,

Designed it in accordance with the Four Seasons and the Eight Divisions.

The length of top and bottom match Heaven and Earth.

Positive and Negative were to left and right, dividing the sun and moon.

The Six Divine Generals of the Oracular Lines are there, following the Heavenly Code;

The constellations of the Eight Trigrams are set out in order.

It was named the Supremely Precious Gold?imbued Rake,

And served to guard the gates of the Jade Emperor's palace.

As I had become a great Immortal,

I now enjoyed eternal life,

And was commissioned as Marshal Tian Peng,

With this rake to mark my imperial office.

When I raise it, fire and light stream forth;

When I lower it, a snowy blizzard blows.

It terrifies the Heavenly Generals,

And makes the King of Hell too quake with fear.

There is no other weapon matching it on Earth,

Nor iron to rival it throughout the world.

It changes into anything I like,

And leaps about whenever I say the spell.

For many a year I've carried it around,

Keeping it with me every single day.

I will not put it down even to eat,

Nor do I when I sleep at night.

I took it with me to the Peach Banquet,

And carried it into the celestial court.

When I sinned my sin in drunken pride,

I used it to force compliance with my evil will.

When Heaven sent me down to the mortal dust,

I committed all kinds of wickedness down here.

I used to devour people in this cave,

Until I fell in love and married in Gao Village.

This rake has plunged beneath the sea to stir up dragons,

And climbed high mountains to smash up tigers' dens.

No other blade is worth a mention

Besides my rake, the sharpest weapon ever.

To win a fight with it requires no effort;

Of course it always brings me glory.

Even if you have an iron brain in a brazen head and a body of steel,

This rake will scatter your souls and send your spirit flying.

Thus, even until the end of his journey together with Sanzang, Pig would continue to wield this legendary rake with true pride.

Mount Huaguo

Mount Huaguo , literally meaning Mount of Flowers and Fruit, is a major area featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''.

This mount had been featured as the birthplace of Sun Wukong, the main character within the novel. This mountain specifically holds many demons and monkeys in its population. Within this rather large mountain, many various areas remain hidden; one of such being the Water Curtain Cave. After the brave Sun Wukong rushed through a large waterfall and made it to this cave, every individual in the Flowers and Fruit mountain acknowledged Wukong as their king.

After Wukong becomes the mountains king, this mountain becomes exceedingly civilized and well trained for various future conflicts such as war. Such a trait is easily seen when Wukong had leaved this mountain for reasons such as protecting the Tang priest . Due to the natural and civilized ways of this mountain set by Wukong, this mountain would effectively continue to thrive even after 500 years of conflict.

Mount Huaguo

Mount Huaguo , literally meaning Mount of Flowers and Fruit, is a major area featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel ''Journey to the West''.

This mount had been featured as the birthplace of Sun Wukong, the main character within the novel. This mountain specifically holds many demons and monkeys in its population. Within this rather large mountain, many various areas remain hidden; one of such being the Water Curtain Cave. After the brave Sun Wukong rushed through a large waterfall and made it to this cave, every individual in the Flowers and Fruit mountain acknowledged Wukong as their king.

After Wukong becomes the mountains king, this mountain becomes exceedingly civilized and well trained for various future conflicts such as war. Such a trait is easily seen when Wukong had leaved this mountain for reasons such as protecting the Tang priest . Due to the natural and civilized ways of this mountain set by Wukong, this mountain would effectively continue to thrive even after 500 years of conflict.

Journey to the West

Journey to the West is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. Originally published anonymously in the 1590s during the Ming Dynasty, and even though no direct evidence of its authorship survives, it has been ascribed to the scholar since the 20th century.

In , the tale is also often known simply as ''''. This was one title used for a popular, abridged translation by Arthur Waley. The Waley translation has also been published as ''Adventures of the Monkey God''; and ''Monkey: Folk Novel of China''; and ''The Adventures of Monkey''.

The novel is a fictionalized account of the legends around the monk 's pilgrimage to India during the in order to obtain religious texts called sutras. The Bodhisattva , on instruction from the , gives this task to the monk and his three protectors in the form of disciples — namely , and — together with a dragon prince who acts as Xuánzàng's horse mount. These four characters have agreed to help Xuánzàng as an atonement for past sins.

Some scholars propose that the book the Chinese government at the time. ''Journey to the West'' has a strong background in Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and value systems; the pantheon of immortals and bodhisattvas is still reflective of Chinese folk religious beliefs today.

Part of the novel's enduring popularity comes from the fact that it works on multiple levels: it is an adventure story, a dispenser of spiritual insight, and an extended allegory in which the group of pilgrims journeying toward India stands for the individual journeying toward .


The novel comprises 100 chapters. These can be divided into four very unequal parts. The first, which includes chapters 1–7, is really a self-contained prequel to the main body of the story. It deals entirely with the earlier exploits of Sūn Wùkōng, a monkey born from a stone nourished by the Five Elements, who learns the art of the Tao, 72 polymorphic transformations, combat and secrets of immortality, and through guile and force makes a name for himself as the ''Qítiān Dàshèng'' , or "Great Sage Equal to Heaven". His powers grow to match the forces of all of the Eastern deities, and the prologue culminates in Sūn's rebellion against Heaven, during a time when he garnered a post in the celestial bureaucracy. Hubris proves his downfall when the manages to trap him under a mountain for five hundred years.

Only following this introductory story is the nominal main character, Xuánzàng, introduced. Chapters 8–12 provide his early biography and the background to his great journey. Dismayed that "the land of the South knows only greed, hedonism, promiscuity, and sins", the Buddha instructs the Bodhisattva to search China for someone to take the Buddhist sutras of "transcendence and persuasion for good will" back to the East. Part of the story here also relates to how Xuánzàng becomes a monk .

The third and longest section of the work is chapters 13–99, an episodic adventure story which combines elements of the quest as well as the picaresque. The skeleton of the story is Xuánzàng's quest to bring back Buddhist scriptures from Vulture Peak in India, but the flesh is provided by the conflict between Xuánzàng's disciples and the various evils that beset him on the way.

The scenery of this section is, nominally, the sparsely populated lands along the Silk Road between China and India, including Xinjiang, Turkestan, and Afghanistan. The geography described in the book is, however, almost entirely fantastic; once Xuánzàng departs , the Táng capital and crosses the frontier , he finds himself in a wilderness of deep gorges and tall mountains, all inhabited by flesh-eating demons who regard him as a potential meal , with here and there a hidden monastery or royal city-state amid the wilds.

The episodic structure of this section is to some extent formulaic. Episodes consist of 1–4 chapters, and usually involve Xuánzàng being captured and his life threatened, while his disciples try to find an ingenious way of liberating him. Although some of Xuánzàng's predicaments are political and involve ordinary human beings, they more frequently consist of run-ins with various goblins and ogres, many of whom turn out to be the earthly manifestations of heavenly beings or animal-spirits with enough Taoist spiritual merit to assume semi-human forms.

Chapters 13–22 do not follow this structure precisely, as they introduce Xuánzàng's disciples, who, inspired or goaded by , meet and agree to serve him along the way, in order to atone for their sins in their past lives.
*The first is Sun Wukong , or Monkey, previously "Great Sage Equal to Heaven", trapped by Buddha for rebelling against Heaven. He appears right away in Chapter 13. The most intelligent and violent of the disciples, he is constantly reproved for his violence by Xuánzàng. Ultimately, he can only be controlled by a magic gold band that the Bodhisattva has placed around his head, which causes him excruciating pain when Xuánzàng chants certain magic words.
*The second, appearing in 19, is Zhu Bajie , literally Eight-precepts Pig, sometimes translated as Pigsy or just Pig. He was previously Marshal Tīan Péng , commander of the Heavenly Naval forces, banished to the mortal realm for flirting with the Princess of the Moon . He is characterized by his insatiable appetites for food and sex, and is constantly looking for a way out of his duties, but is always kept in line by Sūn Wùkōng.
*The third, appearing in chapter 22, is the river-ogre Sha Wujing , also translated as Friar Sand or Sandy. He was previously Great General who Folds the Curtain , banished to the mortal realm for dropping a crystal goblet of the Heavenly Queen Mother. He is a quiet but generally dependable character, who serves as the straight foil to the comic relief of Sūn and Zhū.
*Possibly to be counted as a fourth disciple is the third prince of the Dragon-King, Yùlóng Sāntàizǐ , who was sentenced to death for setting fire to his father's great pearl. He was saved by Guānyīn from execution to stay and wait for his call of duty. He appears first in chapter 15, but has almost no speaking role, as throughout most of the story he appears in the transformed shape of a horse that Xuánzàng rides on.

Chapter 22, where Shā is introduced, also provides a geographical boundary, as the river that the travelers cross brings them into a new "continent". Chapters 23–86 take place in the wilderness, and consist of 24 episodes of varying length, each characterized by a different magical monster or evil magician. There are impassably wide rivers, , a kingdom ruled by women, a lair of seductive spider-spirits, and many other fantastic scenarios. Throughout the journey, the four brave disciples have to fend off attacks on their master and teacher Xuánzàng from various monsters and calamities.

It is strongly suggested that most of these calamities are engineered by fate and/or the Buddha, as, while the monsters who attack are vast in power and many in number, no real harm ever comes to the four travelers. Some of the monsters turn out to be escaped heavenly animals belonging to bodisattvas or Taoist sages and spirits. Towards the end of the book there is a scene where the Buddha literally ''commands'' the fulfillment of the last disaster, because Xuánzàng is one short of the eighty-one disasters he needs to attain Buddhahood.

In chapter 87, Xuánzàng finally reaches the borderlands of India, and chapters 87–99 present magical adventures in a somewhat more mundane setting. At length, after a pilgrimage said to have taken fourteen years they arrive at the half-real, half-legendary destination of Vulture Peak, where, in a scene simultaneously mystical and comic, Xuánzàng receives the scriptures from the living Buddha.

Chapter 100, the last of all, quickly describes the return journey to the Táng Empire, and the aftermath in which each traveler receives a reward in the form of posts in the bureaucracy of the heavens. Sūn Wùkōng and Xuánzàng achieve Buddhahood, Wùjìng becomes an arhat, the dragon is made a Naga, and Bājiè, whose good deeds have always been tempered by his greed, is promoted to an altar cleanser .

Historical context

The classic story of the ''Journey to the West'' was based on real events. In real life, Xuanzang was a monk at Jingtu Temple in late-Sui Dynasty and early-Tang Dynasty Chang'an. Motivated by the poor quality of Chinese translations of Buddhist scripture at the time, Xuanzang left Chang'an in 629, despite the border being closed at the time due to war with the Gokturks. Helped by sympathetic Buddhists, he travelled via Gansu and Qinghai to Kumul , thence following the Tian Shan mountains to Turfan. He then crossed what are today Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan, into Gandhara, reaching India in 630. Xuanzang travelled throughout the Indian subcontinent for the next thirteen years, visiting important Buddhist pilgrimage sites and studying at the ancient university at Nalanda.

Xuanzang left India in 643 and arrived back in Chang'an in 646 to a warm reception by Emperor Taizong of Tang. He joined Da Ci'en Monastery , where he led the building of the Big Wild Goose Pagoda in order to store the scriptures and icons he had brought back from India. He recorded his journey in the book ''Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty''. With the support of the Emperor, he established an institute at Yuhua Gong monastery dedicated to translating into the scriptures he had brought back. His translation and commentary work established him as the founder of the Dharma character school of Buddhism. Xuanzang died on March 7, 664. The Xingjiao Monastery was established in 669 to house his ashes.

Popular stories of Xuánzàng's journey were in existence long before ''Journey to the West'' was written. In these versions, dating as far back as Southern Song, a monkey character was already a primary protagonist. Before the Yuan Dynasty and early Ming, elements of the Monkey story were already seen.

Main characters

Tripitaka or Xuánzàng

Xuánzàng is the Buddhist monk who set out to India to retrieve the Buddhist scriptures for China. He is called Tripitaka in many versions of the story. Although he is helpless when it comes to defending himself, the bodhisattva Guānyīn helps by finding him powerful disciples who aid and protect him on his journey. In return, the disciples will receive enlightenment and forgiveness for their sins once the journey is done. Along the way, they help the local inhabitants by defeating various monsters. The fact that most of the monsters and demons are trying to obtain immortality by eating Xuánzàng's flesh, and are even attracted to him as he is depicted as quite handsome, provides much of the plot in the story.

Monkey King or Sūn Wùkōng

Sūn Wùkōng is the name given to this character by his teacher, Patriarch Subhuti, and means "the one who has "; he is called Monkey King or simply Monkey Emperor in .

He was born out of a rock that had been dormant for ages in Flower Fruit Mountain that was inhabited/weathered by the sun and moon until a monkey sprang forth. He first distinguished himself by bravely entering the Cave of Water Curtains at the Mountains of Flowers and Fruits ; for this feat, his monkey tribe gave him the title of ''Měi-hóuwáng'' . Later, he started making trouble in Heaven and defeated an army of 100,000 celestial soldiers, led by the Four Heavenly Kings, Erlang Shen, and . Eventually, the Jade Emperor appealed to , who subdued and trapped Wukong under a mountain. He was only saved when Xuanzang came by him on his pilgrimage and accepted him as a disciple.

His primary weapon is the ''rúyì-jīngū-bàng'' , which he can shrink down to the size of a needle and keep behind his ear, as well as expand it to gigantic proportions . The staff, originally a pillar supporting the undersea palace of the East Sea Dragon King, weighs 13,500 pounds, which he pulled out of its support and swung with ease. The Dragon King, not wanting him to cause any trouble, also gave him a suit of golden armor. These gifts, combined with his devouring of the peaches of immortality and three jars of immortality pills while in Heaven, plus his ordeal in an furnace , makes Wukong the strongest member by far of the pilgrimage. Besides these abilities, he can also pull hairs from his body and blow on them to transform them into whatever he wishes . Although he has mastered seventy-two methods of transformations, it does not mean that he is restricted to seventy-two different forms. He can also do a ''jīndǒuyún'' , enabling him to travel vast distances in a single leap. Wukong uses his talents to fight demons and play pranks. However, his behavior is checked by a band placed around his head by Guanyin, which cannot be removed by Wukong himself until the journey's end. Xuanzang can tighten this band by chanting the Tightening-Crown spell whenever he needs to chastise him. The spell is referred to by Xuanzang's disciples as the "Headache Sutra", and is as follows:-
"Om-munney pud-meyon", which is spoken quickly and repeatedly.

Wukong's child-like playfulness is a huge contrast to his cunning mind. This, coupled with his acrobatic skills, makes him a likeable hero, though not necessarily a good role model. His antics present a lighter side in what proposes to be a long and dangerous trip into the unknown.

Zhū Bājiè

Zhū Bājiè is also known as Zhū Wùnéng , and given the name Pigsy, Monk Pig or just simply Pig in .

Once an immortal who was the ''Tiānpéng-yuánshuǎi'' of 100,000 soldiers of the Milky Way, during a celebration of gods, he drank too much and attempted to flirt with , the beautiful moon goddess, resulting in his banishment into the mortal world. He was supposed to be reborn as a human, but ended up in the womb of a sow due to an error at the Reincarnation Wheel, which turned him into a half-man half-pig monster. Staying within ''Yúnzhan-dòng'' , he was commissioned by Guanyin to accompany Xuanzang to India and given the new name Zhu Wuneng.

However, Wuneng's desire for women led him to Gao Village, where he posed as a normal being and took a wife. Later, when the villagers discovered that he was a monster, Wuneng hid the girl away. At this point, Xuanzang and Wukong arrived at Gao Village and helped subdue him. Renamed Zhu Bajie by Xuanzang, he consequently joined the pilgrimage to the West.

His weapon of choice is the ''jiǔchǐdīngpá'' . He is also capable of thirty-six transformations , and can travel on clouds, but not as fast as Wukong. However, Bajie is noted for his fighting skills in the water, which he used to combat Sha Wujing, who later joined them on the journey. He is the second strongest member of the team.

Shā Wùjìng

Shā Wùjìng , given the name Friar Sand or Sandy in , was once the Curtain Raising General, who stood in attendance by the imperial chariot in the Hall of Miraculous Mist. He was exiled to the mortal world and made to look like a monster because he accidentally smashed a crystal goblet belonging to the Heavenly Queen Mother during the Peach Banquet. The now-hideous immortal took up residence in the Flowing Sands River, terrorizing the surrounding villages and travelers trying to cross the river. However, he was subdued by Sūn Wùkōng and Zhū Bājiè when the Xuānzàng party came across him. They consequently took him in to be a part of the pilgrimage to the West.

Shā Wùjìng's weapon is the ''yuèyáchǎn'' . Aside from that, he knows eighteen transformations and is highly effective in water combat. He is about as strong as Bājiè, and is much stronger than Wùkōng in water. However, Bājiè can beat Wujing in a test of endurance, and Wùkōng can beat him out of water.

Shā Wùjìng is known to be the most obedient, logical, and polite of the three disciples, and always takes care of his master, seldom engaging in the bickeries of his fellow-disciples. Perhaps this is why he is sometimes seen as a minor character; the lack of any particular perks confers the lack of distinguishing and/or redeeming characteristics.

Wùjìng eventually becomes an Arhat at the end of the journey, giving him a higher level of exaltation than Bājiè, who is relegated to cleaning every altar at every Buddhist temple for eternity, but is still lower spiritually than Wùkōng or Xuānzàng who are granted Buddhahood.

List of demons

There are many demons in the story. They are listed below:
{| class="wikitable"
! Demon
! Demon
! Identity
! Power
! Fate
|Demon King of Chaos
|superior strength
|King of Black Wind
|black bear
|martial arts
|surrendered to Guanyin
|Demon of Yellow Wind
|marten of Griddhkuta, dwelling place of the
|returned to Lingji Bodhisattva
|undead skeleton
|transformation, trickery
|Demon in Yellow Robe
|wood wolf of Gui
|martial arts, transformation
|returned to heaven
|King of Gold Horn, King of Silver Horn
|servants of Laotzu
|most of Laotzu's magical talismans
|captured by Laotzu and returned to heaven
|Imposter King of Wuji
|azure lion of Bodhisattva
|returned to
|Red Boy
|son of Buffalo Demon-King
|samadhi fire
|surrendered to Guanyin
|Turtoise dragon
|Turtoise dragon
|marine, martial arts
|surrendered to his cousin
|Deity of Tiger Power, Elk Power, Antelope Power
|tiger, elk, antelope
|Taoist sorcery
|King of Spiritual-touch
|gold fish of Guanyin
|marine, martial arts
|surrendered to Guanyin
|King Rhino
|azure bull of Laotzu
|martial arts, Laotzu's magical bracelet
|surrendered to Laotzu
|Deity of Wishes
|bull, younger brother of Buffalo Demon-King
|martial arts
|poisonous sting
|killed by the Sun Rooster of Ang
|Six-ear Macaque
|macaque with six ears
|transformation, imitation, martial arts
|Princess Iron Fan
|rakshasi woman, wife of Buffalo Demon-King
|iron fan
|Buffalo Demon-King
|Bull, sworn brother of Sun Wukong
|transformation, martial arts
|, son-in-law of the dragon king of Azure Lake
|martial arts, nine heads, marine/flight
|wounded by Erlang Shen
|Buddha with Yellow Brow
|servant of Maitreya Buddha
|Maitreya's magical talisman
|surrendered to Maitreya
|Python demon
|Great python
|Golden dog-dragon
|Golden dog-dragon, ride of guanyin
|guanyin's talisman
|surrendered to Guanyin
|Spider demoness
|7 spiders
|spider web, insect demons
|surrendered to Vilamba Bodhisattva, mother of Sun Rooster of Ang
|Centipede Demon
|Centipede with a thousand eyes
|poisonous golden light
|Azure lion demon
|ride of Bodhisattva
|martial arts
|surrendered to
|White elephant demon
|ride of Bodhisattva
|martial arts
|surrendered to
|Great Roc demon
|brother of the 's godmother
|martial arts, flight
|surrendered to the
|the queen of Bhiksu
|father-in-law of the king of Bhiksu
|deer, ride of the
|surrendered to the
|Lady Earth Flow
|albino mouse of Griddhkuta, dwelling place of the ; adopted sister of Nezha
|cave labyrinth
|surrendered to Nezha
|King of Southern Mountains
|Yellow lion demon
|黃�br /> |Nine-headed lion, ride of Taiyi Tianzun
|martial arts, nine heads
|surrendered to Taiyi Tianzun
|King of coldguard, heatguard, dustguard
|3 rhinoceroses
|martial arts
|killed and eaten by the four wood animals of heavenly constellations -- wood wolf of Gui, wood of Jiao, wood of Jing, wood xie of Dou, as well as the Dragon Prince of Western Seas
|imposter princess of India
|white rabbit, pet of Chang'e
|surrendered to Chang'e

Notable English-language translations

*'''' , an abridged translation by Arthur Waley. For many years, the best translation available in ; it only translates thirty out of the hundred chapters.
*''Journey to the West'', a complete translation by W.J.F. Jenner published by the Foreign Languages Press in Beijing 1955
*''The Journey to the West'' , a complete translation in four volumes by Anthony C. Yu.
University of Chicago Press: HC ISBN 0-226-97145-7, ISBN 0-226-97146-5, ISBN 0-226-97147-3, ISBN 0-226-97148-1; PB ISBN 0-226-97150-3, ISBN 0-226-97151-1; ISBN 0-226-97153-8; ISBN 0-226-97154-6.

Media adaptations


: A stage which received its world premiere at the New York Musical Theatre Festival on September 25, 2006.
: A stage musical version created by Chen Shi-zheng, Damon Albarn and Jamie Hewlett. It premiered as part of the 2007 Manchester International Festival at the Palace Theatre on June 28.
*''The Monkey King''
: A production by the Children's Theater Company in Minneapolis, MN in 2005.


*''Monkey Goes West''
*:The Shaw Brothers'
*::: (: Sau yau gei. Also known as "Monkey with 72 Magic". Directed by Ho Meng-Hua.
*''Princess Iron Fan''
**::a sequel to Monkey Goes West, adapting two episodes from the novel. Directed by Ho Meng-Hua.
*''Cave of the Silken Web''
**::the next film in the series. Directed by Ho Meng-Hua.
*''The Land of Many Perfumes''
**::the fourth film in the Shaw Brothers' series based on ''Journey to the West''. Directed by Ho Meng-Hua.
*''A Chinese Odyssey''
::A comdey loosley based on the tale of "Journey to the West".
::by Stephen Chow
*''Heavenly Legend''
::A film by Tai Seng Entertainment starring Kung Fu kid Sik Siu Loong is partially based on this legend.
*''A Chinese Tall Story''
::live action movie starring Nicholas Tse as Xuánzàng.
*''The Forbidden Kingdom''
::live action movie starring Jackie Chan and Jet Li which is said to be based on the Legend of the Monkey King, the same legend as the TV show Monkey.
::live action movie starring Stephen Chow and An epic retelling of a 16th century Chinese literary classic. Will Smith currently in negotiations to co-star.

Live action television

* ''''
:: A well-known 1970s Japanese television series based on ''Journey to the West'' translated into English by the BBC.
::A TV series produced by CCTV. Noted for its faithfulness to the original novel, this TV series is still considered by many as a classic.
::A popular series produced by Hong Kong studio TVB, starring Dicky Cheung.
*''Journey to the West II''
::The sequel to TVB's ''Journey to the West'' series, starring Benny Chan.
::'s TV adaptation of this legend, also called ''The Lost Empire''.
*''The Monkey King: Quest for the Sutra'' 2002
::A loose adaptation starring Dicky Cheung, who also portrayed Sun Wukong in the 1996 TVB series.
::A Japanese television series starring the SMAP star Shingo Katori.

Comics, manga and anime

*''Alakazam the Great''
:One of the first anime films produced by Toei Animation, a retelling of first part of the story based on the characters designed by Osamu Tezuka.
*''BBC Beijing Olympics titles''
:A two-minute long introduction produced in 2008 for the Beijing Olympics by the BBC. The animation and music were specially produced by Jamie Hewlett and Damon Albarn.
:Started off based on Journey to the West, but later deviated from it. Sun Wukong becomes Son Goku, who also has an elongating staff. The object of sutras are replaced by the Dragonballs.
:manga and anime series inspired by the legend. Follow-up series include '''' and ''''.
:A shōnen-ai series in both anime and manga formats with the ''Patalliro!'' cast playing out the Zaiyuji storyline with a BL twist.
*''Havoc in Heaven''
::Original animation from China, by Shanghai Animation Film Studio.
*''Ginseng Fruit''
::Original animation from China, by Shanghai Animation Film Studio.
*''Iyashite Agerun Saiyūki''
::A 2007 adult anime
:An animated retelling of the legend.
*''Monkey Typhoon''
:A manga and anime series based on the ''Journey to the West'' saga, following a futuristic steampunk-retelling of the legend.
:An animated science fiction version of the story.
:A gruesome manga inspired by the tale.

Works referencing Journey to the West

*''American Born Chinese'': An American graphic novel by Gene Yang. Nominated for the National Book Award .
*''Doraemon'': A special tells the story of ''Journey To The West'' casting the ''Doraemon'' characters as the characters of the legend.
*'''': Japanese manga and anime series loosely inspired by ''Journey to the West''.
*''Eyeshield 21'': Three of the players for the Shinryuji Nagas are referred to as the ''Saiyuki Trio'' based upon their appearances and personalities.
*''InuYasha'': The characters meet descendants of three of the main characters of the ''Journey of the West'' in one episode and main character, Kagome Higurashi, says a few lines about the whole book and story. Also, Inuyasha's necklace, which allows Kagome to punish him at will, is probably based on Sun Wukong's headband.
*''Kaleido Star'': The cast performs ''Saiyuki'' on stage a few times in the beginning of the second half of the series.
*''Love Hina'': The characters put on a play based on the story in anime episode 16.
*''Naruto'': , a character from ''Naruto'', is based on Princess Iron Fan from the legend. is a summoned monkey who bears resemblance to Sun Wukong. He has the ability to transform into a staff similar to the ''rúyì-jīngū-bàng'', which can alter its size at will.
*''Kyoryu Sentai Zyuranger'': The 1992 Super Sentai series, the monster in the thirty-seventh episode is based on Gold-Horn from chapters 32-35.
*''Ninja Sentai Kakuranger'': The 1994 Super Sentai series, where each of the main characters are inspired by the main characters of ''Journey to the West''
*''GoGo Sentai Boukenger'': The 2006 Super Sentai series, where its final episode involved the ''Rúyì-jīngū-bàng''
*''Juken Sentai Gekiranger'': The 2007 Super Sentai series, where one of its villains fighting style is homeage to Sun Wukong.
*''Ranma 1/2'': Pastiches of the characters appear throughout the manga and movies.
*''Read or Die '': One of the villains is a clone of Xuanzang, who seems to have the powers of Sun Wukong and Xuanzang.
*''Read or Dream'': In the manga, Anita gets hit on the forehead with a baseball and is knocked out. She has a dream based on the Wizard of Oz, but one of the other characters notes that he is in the wrong story because he is the Monkey King.
*''Sakura Wars'': The Imperial Flower Troupe Performs the play of Journey to the West.
*'''': 1978-1979 anime of a sci-fi space opera retelling of ''Journey to the West'' by Toei Animation.
*''Shinzo'': An anime loosely based on ''Journey to the West''.
*'''': An American comic mini-series produced by Anarchy Studio.


*''Yuu Yuu Ki''
: A video game for the Famicom Disk System, based directly on the story.
*''Monkey Magic''
: A video game for the Playstation console.
*''Journey to the West''
: An unlicensed game by Taiwanese developer TXC Corp, 1994.
* ''''
: A video game and multiseries in which the Pokémon creatures Chimchar, Monferno, and mainly Infernape are based on Sūn Wùkōng.
* ''''
: A tactical role-playing game videogame for the PlayStation developed by Koei.
*''Fuun Gokuu Ninden''
: An action game for the Playstation. The characters of the game are based on the characters of ''Journey to the West''.
: A 1988 arcade game by Technos Japan Corp., based on the original story and characters. The Japanese version is titled
: A video game and character of the same name created by Capcom whose title character is a caricature of Sūn Wùkōng. The granddaughter of SonSon appears in Marvel vs. Capcom 2.
*''Westward Journey''
: A massively multiplayer online role-playing game .
*''Whomp 'Em''
: NES game whose Japanese version is based on the story .
*''Oriental Legend''
: Arcade action game by IGS in 1997, based on the novel. This game was only released in China and Korea.
*''The Monkey King: The Legend Begins''
: A side scrolling shooting game on the Nintendo Wii made in 2007 by UFO Interactive Games Inc. The player will play as Wu Kung a monkey who is striving to be a powerful god or a girl named Mei Mei.

Full text

Traditional Chinese

* [西�from WikiSource
* from the Gutenberg Project
* from Open Lit
* from

Simplified Chinese

* from Xahlee


* - Freeware complete English text version in PDF format

Other links

* - Comprehensive and detailed website with in-depth information about Journey to the West.
* with manhua
* Plot summary plus summary of book on historical Xuanzang.


Immortal Peaches

* ''see also: Journey to the West main novel article''
* ''for incarnated information see items''

Immortal Peaches a major item featured within the famous Chinese novel Journey to the West. The first time in which these immortal peaches were seen had been within heaven when Sun Wukong had been stationed as the Protector of the Peaches. As the “Protector of the Peaches, Wukong quickly realized the legendary effects of the immortal peaches if they were to be consumed – over 1,000 years of life after the consumption of a single peach – and acted quickly as to consume one. However, Wukong ended up running into many fragments of trouble such as a certain queen that was planning on holding a peach banquet for many members of Heaven. Wukong manages to make himself very small and hide within a sacred peach. Later on within the series, Wukong would have another chance to eat an immortal fruit – in which would be his second time. A certain 1,000 foot tall tree was stationed behind a Taoist monastery run by a Taoist Master and his disciples – in which the master had been gone. After this point within the novel, these Immortal peaches would never be seen again. Also refer to The Feast of Immortal Peaches.

Greenface (Journey to the West)

Greenface a character featured within the famous ancient Journey to the West. Greenface is first shown during Chapter 90 as a majoring demon under Tawny Lion, the head demon of a neighboring forest-palace. Greenface at first acts as a messenger from Tawny Lion to invite Tawny Lion's grandfather to a certain celebration banquet – due to the attainment of three new weapons. Greenface is stopped by , , and who ask his destination. Following a major event in which Tawny Lion was later forced to call upon his grandfather for assistance against Wukong and the others, Greenface proposes a plan with Tawny Lion. Greenface tells his master that he will ride atop his grandfather who will be currently transformed into a large nine-headed lion monster and capture the Tang Priest and all the others; in which they will placed within each mouth of the large lion. After Greenface leaves by cloud atop Tawny Lion's grandfather, the news of Tawny Lion’s death and the capture of every other random demon reached Greenface's ears. After Wukong later asks upon the help of the lion keeper that had let Tawny Lion's grandfather loose by mistake, Wukong barges into the monster’s cave. Greenface is quickly killed by Wukong's cudgel in one swift blow during this event.

Great White Planet

Great White Planet a high ranking servant under that of the Jade Emperor during the famous Chinese novel, Journey to the West. After hearing of the appearance of the Heaven-born monkey, Sun Wukong, the Jade Emperor assigned for the Great White Planet to be the one to retrieve him. Initially Great White Planet was the first person from heaven that was to see Sun Wukong. After which Sun Wukong consented to leave with the Great White Planet. However, Sun Wukong was angry at the fact that he was ranked as the Protector of the Horses and rebelled against heaven. This led to the Great White Planet once again acting as a messenger and some what of a friend towards Sun Wukong. Great White Planet was not shown of at any other time following the first few chapters of ''Journey to the West''. The Great White Planet is also the reason for other famous members of ''Journey to the West'', such as Friar Sand to be alive. In Chinese Astronomy, the Great White Planet is the name for Venus.

Great White Planet is portrayed by Cheung Ying Choi in the 1996 Hong Kong TV series ''''.


is a popular group from Japan, consisting of Mickie Yoshino, Takami Asano, Steve Fox, Yukihide Takekawa, and Tommy Snyder. They have released more than 25 records. The group enjoyed brief success in the through their work on the popular Japanese television program '''' . The group's disco based soundtrack soon won over a cult following, earning Godiego chart success with the single "Monkey Magic", the group's largely popular title theme, the LP ''Monkey'' and the single "Gandhara".

Though most of their hit songs include translated Japanese lyrics, almost all of the lyrics are written first in English.

Apart from their association with ''Monkey'', Godiego soon faded in the UK, but continued to release many successful albums in their homeland of Japan before announcing a split-up in 1984.

Godiego also performed some songs for the ''Galaxy Express 999'' anime series, most notably the eponymous end song of the 1979 film version.

Godiego reunited in 1999, and has continued touring.

An Orange Range cover version of "Monkey Magic" was featured in the 2007 INiS rhythm video game, ''Moero! Nekketsu Rhythm Damashii Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan 2''. They also inspired the -Japanese band in name and performances.


* - Keyboard, vocals, band leader
* - Vocals, keyboard
* - Guitar, vocals
* - Bass, vocals
* - Drums, vocals


*Monkey Magic
*Galaxy Express 999
*JAVA WA JAVA in the book of Godiego



Gao Village

Gao Village a minor village featured within the famed ancient Chinese novel Journey to the West. Gao Village is a village that remains rather near to the main Tang Dynasty - thus being within China. Around chapter 18, Sanzang and Sun Wukong would arrive at this seemingly small village. Gao Village is run by an old man named Square Gao and his hard working villagers. This village is reputed for its amount of vegetarian food - as seen with Zhu Bajie, Square Gao's son-in-law. After Bajie is effectively subdued by Wukong due to his exceedingly gluttonous and lustful ways, this village's overall provisional production rises to a large margin. Sanzang, Wukong, and his new disciple all soon leave this village and continue their journey westward. This village would not be shown again following Bajie's subjugation during chapter 19.

Demon King of Confusion

Demon King of Confusion a character featured within the famed Chinese novel Journey to the West. This demon king is the first opponent that Sun Wukong would face off within the novel - in which had been in chapter 2. When Wukong had returned from his celestial teacher in chapter 2, his fellow monkeys had told him that the Demon King of Confusion had taken over their Water Curtain Cave and generally ordered every monkey to do as he pleased. After Wukong reached the demon king's cave, the king simply laughed at the boastful ways of Wukong and headed out in full armor. This is what could be seen when the demon king appeared before Wukong:

''*On his head he wore a dark golden helmet,
Glistening in the sun.
*On his body he wore a black silk gown'',
Flapping in the breeze.
*''Below that he wore black metal armour,
Girt with a leather belt''.
*''On his feet he wore patterned boots,
As splendid as a field?marshal's''.
*''His waist was ten feet round,
And his height was thirty cubits''.
*''In his hand he held a sword,
With gleaming point and edge''.
*''He called himself the Demon King of Confusion
And his appearance was truly dazzling.''

Throughout the full battle between the demon king and Wukong, things seemed to be going very badly for the demon. At first, the demon sought to defeat Sun Wukong in hand to hand combat, fearing that he would look foolish defeating a smaller, unarmed, opponent with a weapon, but he then reneged his decision and grabbed the sword after his ribs had been shattered. However, Sun Wukong was too swift for the sword and formed a spell to release over three hundred monkeys; every monkey continuously smacked the demon in every area possible. In time, the demon was completely wounded and Wukong seized this chance to grab hold of his very large sword and send it crashing down atop the demon's head; thus cleaving his head into two - effectively putting an end to his life. He then ordered the monkeys to exterminate the followers of the Demon King of Confusion, rescue the captured monkeys, and restore the mountain to its natural order.


Xuanzang was a famous Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator that brought up the interaction between and in the early period.

He became famous for his seventeen year overland trip to India and back, which is recorded in detail in his autobiography and a biography.

Nomenclature, orthography and etymology

Xuanzang is also known as Táng-sānzàng or simply as Táng Sēng , or Tang Monk in Mandarin; in Cantonese as ''Tong Sam Jong'' and in Vietnamese as ''???ng Tam T?ng''. Less common romanizations of Xuanzang include ''Hhuen Kwan, Hiouen Thsang, Hiuen Tsiang, Hsien-tsang, Hsyan-tsang, Hsuan Chwang, Hsuan Tsiang, Hwen Thsang, Xuan Cang, Xuan Zang, Shuen Shang, Yuan Chang, Yuan Chwang,'' and ''Yuen Chwang''. ''Hsüan, Hüan, Huan'' and ''Chuang'' are also found. In Korean, he is known as ''Hyeon Jang''. In Japanese, he is known as ''Genjō'', or ''Genjō-sanzō'' . In Vietnamese, he is known as ''???ng T?ng'' , ''???ng Tam T?ng'' , ''Huy?n Trang''

Sānzàng is the Chinese term for the Tripitaka scriptures, and in some English-language fiction he is addressed with this title.

Early life

Xuanzang was born near Luoyang, Henan in 602? as Chén Huī or Chén Yī and died 5th Feb. 664 in Yu Hua Gong . Xuanzang, whose lay name was Chen Hui, was born into a family noted for its erudition for generations. He was the youngest of four children. His great-grandfather was an official serving as a prefect, his grandfather was appointed as professor in the Imperial College at the capital. His father was a conservative Confucianist who gave up office and withdrew into seclusion to escape the political turmoil that gripped China at that time. According to traditional biographies, Xuanzang displayed a superb intelligence and earnestness, amazing his father by his careful observance of the Confucian rituals at the age of eight. Along with his brothers and sister, he received an early education from his father, who instructed him in classical works on filial piety and several other canonical treatises of orthodox Confucianism.

Although his household in Chenhe Village of Goushi Town , Luo Prefecture , Henan, was essentially Confucian, at a young age Xuanzang expressed interest in becoming a Buddhist monk as one of his elder brothers had done. After the death of his father in 611, he lived with his older brother Chensu for five years at Jingtu Monastery in Luoyang, supported by the Sui Dynasty state. During this time he studied both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, preferring the latter.

In 618, the Sui Dynasty collapsed and Xuanzang and his brother fled to Chang'an, which had been proclaimed as the capital of the state, and thence southward to Chengdu, Sichuan. Here the two brothers spent two or three years in further study in the monastery of Kong Hui, including the ''Abhidharmakosa-sastra'' . When Xuanzang requested to take Buddhist orders at the age of thirteen, the abbot Zheng Shanguo made an exception in his case because of his precocious knowledge.

Xuanzang was fully ordained as a monk in 622, at the age of twenty. The myriad contradictions and discrepancies in the texts at that time prompted Xuanzang to decide to go to India and study in the cradle of Buddhism. He subsequently left his brother and returned to Chang'an to study foreign languages and to continue his study of Buddhism. He began his mastery of Sanskrit in 626, and probably also studied Tocharian. During this time Xuanzang also became interested in the metaphysical Yogacara school of Buddhism.


In 629, Xuanzang reportedly had a dream that convinced him to journey to India. The Tang Dynasty and Eastern Türk G?ktürks were waging war at the time; therefore prohibited foreign travel. Xuanzang persuaded some Buddhist guards at the gates of Yumen and slipped out of the empire via Liangzhou , and Qinghai province. He subsequently travelled across the Gobi Desert to Kumul , thence following the Tian Shan westward, arriving in Turfan in 630. Here he met the king of Turfan, a Buddhist who equipped him further for his travels with letters of introduction and valuables to serve as funds.

Moving further westward, Xuanzang escaped robbers to reach Yanqi, then toured the Theravada monasteries of Kucha. Further west he passed before turning northwest to cross the Tian Shan's Bedal Pass into modern Kyrgyzstan. He skirted Issyk Kul before visiting on its northwest, and met the great of the Western Türk, whose relationship to the emperor was friendly at the time. After a feast, Xuanzang continued west then southwest to Tashkent , capital of modern day Uzbekistan. From here, he crossed the desert further west to Samarkand. In Samarkand, which was under influence, the party came across some abandoned Buddhist temples and Xuanzang impressed the local king with his preaching. Setting out again to the south, Xuanzang crossed a spur of the and passed through the famous Iron Gates. Continuing southward, he reached the Amu Darya and Termez, where he encountered a community of more than a thousand Buddhist monks.

Further east he passed through Kunduz, where he stayed for some time to witness the funeral rites of Prince Tardu, who had been poisoned. Here he met the monk Dharmasimha, and on the advice of the late Tardu made the trip westward to Balkh , to see the Buddhist sites and relics, especially the Nava Vihara, or Nawbahar, which he described as the westernmost monastic institution in the world. Here Xuanzang also found over 3,000 Theravada monks, including Prajnakara, a monk with whom Xuanzang studied Theravada scriptures. He acquired the important text here, which he later translated into Chinese. Prajnakara then accompanied the party southward to Bamyan, where Xuanzang met the king and saw tens of Theravada monasteries, in addition to the two large carved out of the rockface. The party then resumed their travel eastward, crossing the Shibar pass and descending to the regional capital of Kapisi , which sported over 100 monasteries and 6,000 monks, mostly Mahayana. This was part of the fabled old land of Gandhara. Xuanzang took part in a religious debate here, and demonstrated his knowledge of many Buddhist sects. Here he also met the first Jains and Hindus of his journey. He pushed on to Jalalabad and Laghman, where he considered himself to have reached India. The year was 630.

South Asia

Xuanzang left Jalalabad, which had few Buddhist monks, but many stupas and monasteries. He passed through Hunza and the Khyber Pass to the east, reaching the former capital of Gandhara, Peshawar, on the other side. Peshawar was nothing compared to its former glory, and Buddhism was declining in the region. Xuanzang visited a number of stupas around Peshawar, notably the Kanishka Stupa. This stupa was built just southeast of Peshawar, by a former king of the city. In 1908 it was rediscovered by D.B. Spooner with the help of Xuanzang's account.

Xuanzang left Peshawar and travelled northeast to the Swat Valley. Reaching Udyana, he found 1,400 old monasteries, that had previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the Mahayana school. Xuanzang continued northward and into the Buner Valley, before doubling back via Shabaz Gharni to cross the Indus river at Hund. Thereafter he headed to Taxila, a Mahayana Buddhist kingdom that was a vassal of Kashmir, which is precisely where he headed next. Here he found 5,000 more Buddhist monks in 100 monasteries. Here he met a talented Mahayana monk and spent his next two years studying Mahayana alongside other schools of Buddhism. During this time, Xuanzang writes about the Fourth Buddhist council that took place nearby, ca. 100 AD, under the order of King Kanishka of Kushana.

In 633, Xuanzang left Kashmir and journeyed south to Chinabhukti , where he studied for a year with the monk-prince Vinitaprabha.

In 634 he went east to Jalandhar in eastern , before climbing up to visit predominantly "Hinayana" monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and then Mathura, on the Yamuna river. Mathura had 2,000 monks of both major Buddhist branches, despite being Hindu-dominated. Xuanzang travelled up the river to Srughna before crossing eastward to Matipura, where he arrived in 635, having crossed the river . From here, he headed south to Sankasya , said to be where descended from heaven, then onward to the northern Indian emperor Harsha's grand capital of Kanyakubja . Here, in 636, Xuanzang encountered 100 monasteries of 10,000 monks , and was impressed by the king's patronage of both scholarship and Buddhism. Xuanzang spent time in the city studying Theravada scriptures, before setting off eastward again for Ayodhya , homeland of the Yogacara school. Xuanzang now moved south to Kausambi , where he had a copy made from an important local image of the Buddha.

Xuanzang now returned northward to Sravasti, travelled through Terai in the southern part of modern Nepal and thence to Kapilavastu, his last stop before Lumbini, the birthplace of . Reaching Lumbini, he would have seen a pillar near the old Ashoka tree that Buddha is said to have been born under. This was from the reign of emperor Ashoka, and records that he worshipped at the spot. The pillar was rediscovered by A. Fuhrer in 1895.

In 637, Xuanzang set out from Lumbini to Kusinagara, the site of Buddha's death, before heading southwest to the deer park at Sarnath where Buddha gave his first sermon, and where Xuanzang found 1,500 resident monks. Travelling eastward, at first via Varanasi, Xuanzang reached Vaisali, Pataliputra and Bodh Gaya. He was then accompanied by local monks to Nalanda, the great ancient university of India, where he spent at least the next two years. He was in the company of several thousand scholar-monks, whom he praised. Xuanzang studied logic, grammar, Sanskrit, and the Yogacara school of Buddhism during his time at Nalanda.

Xuanzang turned southward and travelled to Andhradesa to visit the famous Viharas at Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda. He stayed at Amaravati and studied 'Abhidhammapitakam'. He observed that there were many Viharas at Amaravati and some of them were deserted. He later proceeded to Kanchi, the imperial capital of Pallavas and a strong centre of Buddhism.

His influence on Chinese Buddhism

During his travels he studied with many famous Buddhist masters, especially at the famous center of Buddhist learning at . When he returned, he brought with him some 657 Sanskrit texts. With the emperor's support, he set up a large translation bureau in Chang'an , drawing students and collaborators from all over East Asia. He is credited with the translation of some 1,330 fascicles of scriptures into Chinese. His strongest personal interest in Buddhism was in the field of Yogācāra or ''Consciousness-only'' .

The force of his own study, translation and commentary of the texts of these traditions initiated the development of the Faxiang school in East Asia. Although the school itself did not thrive for a long time, its theories regarding perception, consciousness, karma, rebirth, etc. found their way into the doctrines of other more successful schools. Xuanzang's closest and most eminent student was Kuiji who became recognized as the first patriarch of the Faxiang school. Hsuan Tsang's logic, as described by Kuiji, was often misunderstood by scholars of Chinese Buddhism because they lack the necessary background in Indian logic.

Xuanzang was known for his extensive but careful translations of Indian Buddhist texts to Chinese, and subsequent recoveries of lost Indian Buddhist texts from translated Chinese copies. He is credited with writing or compiling the ''Cheng Weishi Lun'' as a commentary on these texts. His translation of the Heart Sutra became and remains standard.He also founded the short-lived but influential Faxiang school of Buddhism. Additionally, he was known for recording the events of the reign of the northern Indian emperor, Harsha.

The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra

Xuanzang returned to China with three copies of the ''Mahaprajnaparamita Sutra''. Xuanzang, with a team of disciple translators, commenced translating the voluminous work in 660 CE, using all three versions to ensure the integrity of the source documentation.

His Autobiography and Biography

In 646, under the Emperor's request, Xuanzang completed his book ''Journey to the West in the Great Tang Dynasty'' , which has become one of the primary sources for the study of Central Asia and India. This book was first translated into French by the Sinologist Stanislas Julien in 1857.

There was also a biography of Xuanzang written by the monk Huili . Both books were first translated into English by Samuel Beal, in 1884 and 1911 respectively. An English translation with copious notes by Thomas Watters was edited by T. S. Rhys Davids and S.W. Bushell, and published posthumously in London in 1905.

His Legacy

Xuanzang's journey along the so-called Silk Roads, and the legends that grew up around it, inspired the novel ''Journey to the West'', one of the great classics of Chinese literature. The is the reincarnation of a disciple of Gautama Buddha, and is protected on his journey by three powerful disciples. One of them, the , was a popular favourite and profoundly influenced and contemporary Japanese manga and anime, , and became well known in the West by Arthur Waley's translation and later the cult TV series .

In the Yuan Dynasty, there was also a by Wu Changling about Xuanzang obtaining scriptures.


A skull relic purported to be that of Xuanzang was held in the Temple of Great Compassion, Tianjin until 1956 when it was taken to Nalanda - allegedly by the Dalai Lama - and presented to India. The relic is now in the Patna museum. The Wenshu Monastery in Chengdu, Sichuan province also claims to have part of Xuanzang's skull.

Further reading

* Beal, Samuel . ''Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang''. 2 vols. Translated by Samuel Beal. London. 1884. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
* Beal, Samuel . ''The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang. Translated from the Chinese of Shaman Hwui Li'' by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
* Bernstein, Richard . ''Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk who crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment''. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-375-40009-5
*Li, Rongxi . ''A Biography of the Tripi?aka Master of the Great Ci’en Monastery of the Great Tang Dynasty''. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-00-1
*Li, Rongxi . ''The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions''. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. Berkeley, California. ISBN 1-886439-02-8
* Saran, Mishi . ''Chasing the Monk’s Shadow: A Journey in the Footsteps of Xuanzang''. Penguin/Viking, New Delhi.
* Gordon, Stewart. ''When Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks who created the "Riches of the East"'' Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, 2008. ISBN 0-306-81556-7.
*Sun Shuyun . ''Ten Thousand Miles without a Cloud'' . Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-00-712974-2
* Wriggins, Sally Hovey . ''The Silk Road Journey with Xuanzang''. Boulder, Colorado: WestviewPress. ISBN 0-8133-6599-6
* Waley, Arthur . ''The Real Tripitaka, and Other Pieces''. London: G. Allen and Unwin.

Bai Gu Jing

Bai Gu Jing is a yaoguai from ''Journey to the West''.


The four travelers have entered another dangerous region. Sun wu kong leaves to scout around the area, but puts Sanzang and the other two disciples inside a magic circle. The White-bone Demon first uses one of its many transformations to manifest itself as an innocent pretty girl who says she left her father and mother to search for food and that she is willing to share them with ''Sanzang'' aka ''Xuanzang.'' Sun Wukong who uses his magical eyes could see through her disguise and hits her with the golden banded cudgel and smashes her body but she leaves the body before it is hit a second time. This leads to a fallout with Sanzang and Wukong as Sanzang sees that Wukong's method is too harsh and that it defeats their purpose of finding salvation in all living beings.

As Sanzang eventually forgives Wukong for his action, Bai Gu Jing manifest itself into its next transformation which is the mother of the girl that Wukong first killed. Once again, Wukong sees through the demon's trick, and Wukong beats it one more time with the cudgel to incite Sanzang to further scold him more. With anger, Wukong falls for the demon's trickery once again, Sanzang scolds Wukong but repents for his doing. Sanzang doesn't realize that the demon's intention is to drive Wukong away knowing he is his only protector. Sanzang would once again forgive Wukong but he gives him an ultimatim that he is not to kill anymore.

In the final transformation, Bai Gu Jing manifest itself into the father to seek pity from Sanzang who believes Wukong had killed both his wife and daughter. In the final act, Wukong once again ignores Sanzang's order and kills the last manifestation of the demon, this act led to Sanzang using the Headband tightening spell to punish Wukong. While Wukong refuses to repent for his actions, Sanzang expels him from the journey leaving him to return to ''Flower Fruit Mountain''. Once Wukong is gone, Sanzang and his other disciples soon fall into the demon's trap, as it intends to eat his flesh which is believe to bring immortality. The finale of the story leads to Sanzang's forgivings and the return of Wukong to save the day.

This part of the story brings into debate the argument between Sanzang and Wukong, Wukong acts without thinking and repent as he sees only evil and good, he is the only one that could see through the demon and believes that the only solution is by vanquishing it. On the other hand Sanzang thinks with compassion and believes even if Wukong was right, there are alternatives in dealing with the demon without killing it. The demon also uses the notion of karma to mock Sanzang and his disciples by using karma, its reincarnation from the daughter to the mother and eventually to the father leads Sanzang to feel more pity every time Wukong kills. The eventual outcome of the story allows both Sanzang and Wukong to learn a valuable lesson, as Sanzang must tolerate the means of Wukong in order to be protected while Wukong must learn to understand compassion.